.....| p i o n e e r s   o f   t h e   n e t |...................
Licklider Licklider, Joseph Carl Robnett; eminent psychologist and psychoacoustician; visionary computer scientist; wrote seminal paper, "Man-Computer Symbiosis," in 1960 inspiring the transformation in computer science that led to networking; was recruited in 1962 to head ARPA's behavioral sciences division and lead ARPA into computer research; had been on faculty at MIT and Harvard, researcher at Lincoln Lab and BBN; became leader in development of time-sharing and interactive computing systems; later headed MIT's Project MAC; died in 1990.

Roberts Roberts, Larry; engineer; director and principal architect of the ARPA network experiment; often referred to as "the father of the ARPANET"; designed and wrote the network specification, drafted the Request For Proposals, and oversaw all work on the project from 1966 to 1973; became director of ARPA's Information Processing Techniques Office in 1969; had conducted groundbreaking proof-of-principle TX-2 networking experiment with Wes Clark at Lincoln Lab in early 1966 before moving to ARPA; wrote the first electronic mail manager software (called RD) in 1973; left ARPA in 1973 to direct TELENET.

Taylor Taylor, Bob; director of ARPA Information Processing Techniques Office from 1966 to 1969; had the idea for building ARPA experimental computer network and obtained funding ($1 million) to start it; recruited Larry Roberts from Lincoln Lab to be head of the project; had studied psychoacoustics and mathematics at The University of Texas in the 1950s; was a research administrator at NASA before joining ARPA; later founded the computer science lab at Xerox's Palo Alto Research Center; built Digital Equipment Corporation Systems Research Center in Palo Alto.

Baran, Paul; co-inventor of packet-switching; wrote papers on the fundamentals of packet-switching and design of a distributed data network in the early 1960s while working for RAND Corporation.

Cerf, Vint; co-inventor of the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP); became the leading advocate for its worldwide adoption in the 1980s; had been a graduate student in computer science at UCLA in 1969; involved in the installation of the first IMP and early operation of the Network Measurement Center; member of the original Network Working Group (NWG).

Ornstein and Kahn Kahn, Bob; (pictured with Severo Ornstein); co-inventor (with Vint Cerf) of TCP/IP; mathematician who had been a professor of electrical engineering (on leave at BBN) in 1967, working on communications and information theory; joined BBN project team to design and build the first IMP; organized the first public demonstration of the ARPA Network in 1972; leader in development of packet-radio and packet-satellite networks.

Clark, Wesley; researcher at Lincoln Labs in the 1950s; co-builder (with Ken Olsen) of the TX-0 computer; worked on the TX-2, an early interactive graphics machine; introduced J.C.R. Licklider to computing.

Frank, Howard; network topology expert; used computer-based analysis to assist Larry Roberts in laying out a cost-effective network topology.

Heart Heart, Frank; computer systems engineer, head of BBN's computer systems division, and project manager of the team that designed and built the Interface Message Processors for the ARPA Network in 1969; a graduate of MIT, was a leader in the development of real-time computing systems at Lincoln Lab in the late 1950s and early 1960s.

Ornstein, Severo; hardware engineer; had worked with Wes Clark and Frank Heart at Lincoln Laboratory; was enlisted in 1968 to direct the IMP hardware design and implementation; key member of IMP Guys team at BBN; taught at Harvard; later worked at Xerox PARC and founded Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility.

Walden Walden, Dave; programmer; member of the IMP Guys team at BBN; co-wrote the operating code for the Interface Message Processor and was responsible for IMP-to-host issues; worked with Frank Heart and Will Crowther at Lincoln Lab on real-time computer systems in 1950s and early 1960s.

Cosell, Bernie; programmer and software debugger; member of the IMP Guys team at BBN in 1968.

Kleinrock Kleinrock, Len; queueing theorist and engineer; contributed to first theories about packet-switching; wrote thesis at MIT in 1959 on communications networks and problem of data flow, suggesting the notion of data blocks; worked on TX-2 at Lincoln Lab; ran the Network Measurement Center at UCLA; mentor to many graduate students active in early network development.

Crocker, Steve; creator of "Request For Comments" (RFCs); coined the term and wrote first RFC on April 7, 1969; member of the original Network Working Group; graduate student at UCLA in 1969 involved in installation of the first IMP and early operation of the ARPA Network; Dave Crocker's brother.

Crowther Crowther, Will; programmer; involved in early development of real-time computing systems at Lincoln Lab; was recruited to join IMP Guys at BBN in 1968; became the leader of BBN's effort to write IMP operating code and network routing software; later wrote the first widely known computer game, Adventure, based on his experience as a cave-explorer.

Barker, Ben; hardware engineer in charge of debugging the IMPs; key member of the IMP Guys team that built the first Interface Message Processors (IMPs) at Bolt Beranek and Newman (BBN) in 1969.

Davies Davies, Donald Watts; co-inventor of packet-switching; British computer pioneer; coined the term "packet-switching" and in the mid-1960s described network concepts very similar to (but independent of knowledge about) Paul Baran's work at RAND; led a team in building Great Britain's first computer network.

Bhushan, Abhay; systems architect and Multics expert; served as chairman of the group that wrote the original File Transfer Protocol (FTP), released as RFC 354, in 1972.

Crocker, Dave; early developer of electronic mail; member of the MsgGroup; brother of Steve Crocker.

Engelbart, Doug; computer scientist; directed the Network Information Center at SRI; inventor of the computer mouse; developer of NLS (online system) for creating digital libraries and storing and retrieving electronic documents.

Farber, Dave; e-mail pioneer; founding member of the MsgGroup; key member of group that proposed CSNET.

Herzfeld, Charles; director of the Advanced Research Projects Agency in 1967; granted Bob Taylor permission to spend $1 million on an experimental computer network that became the ARPANET.

Lukasik, Stephen; physicist; director of ARPA from 1971 to 1975; proponent of network research; early user and advocate of electronic mail.

Walker, Steve; founded the Message Services Group (MsgGroup) in 1975; was program manager at ARPA's Information Processing Techniques Office.

Wessler, Barry; program manager at ARPA's Information Processing Techniques Office under Bob Taylor in 1969.

MacKenzie, Kevin; first known user of emoticons in e-mail; member of the MsgGroup; sent message on April 12, 1979 with extra punctuation to denote "tongue-in-cheek" -).

McKenzie, Alex; engineer; director of BBN's Network Control Center in the 1970s; early member of the MsgGroup; member of the original International Network Working Group (INWG), representing BBN.

McQuillan, John; programmer; Harvard graduate student, worked in BBN's Network Control Center from 1972 to 1974; revised IMP operating code and network software; conducted elaborate tests to improve network reliability.

Marill, Tom; psychologist; student of Licklider's involved in development of time-sharing systems; conducted networking experiment with Larry Roberts at Lincoln Lab in 1965, connecting Lincoln's TX-2 computer to SDC's Q-32 machine in Santa Monica; started Computer Corporation of America (CCA) that year.

Metcalfe, Bob; inventor of Ethernet; did pioneering work at Xerox PARC to develop technology for local area networks in early 1970s; involved in early ARPANET experiments as graduate student, enrolled at Harvard, but working at MIT.

Mockapetris, Paul; co-inventor of the Domain Name System (DNS) in 1983; worked at USC's Information Sciences Institute.

Partridge, Craig; co-inventor of the Domain Name System (DNS); programmer at BBN.

Postel, Jon; co-inventor of the Domain Name System (DNS); engineer; editor and archivist of Request For Comments (RFCs) from early 1970s to present; was a graduate student at UCLA involved in installing and testing the first IMP in 1969; member of the MsgGroup.

Reid, Brian; computer scientist; was a graduate student at Carnegie-Mellon in 1970s and an active member of the Message Group (MsgGroup) during early development of e-mail.

Rising, Hawley; electrical engineer; member of the IMP Guys team at BBN.

Scantlebury, Roger; British computer scientist; colleague of Davies at National Physical Laboratory; gave seminal paper on packet-switching network design in 1967 outlining work of Donald Davies' team in London; influenced Larry Roberts's design of the ARPA network.

Stefferud, Einar; moderator of the Message Group (MsgGroup) in the 1970s; was instrumental in creating a forum for discussion, and sustaining dialogue, over the ARPANET, among the earliest developers of electronic mail.

Thach Thach, Truett; technician in BBN's Los Angeles office in 1969; helped Ben Barker deliver, install and run check-out tests on the first IMP at UCLA.

Tomlinson, Ray; engineer and programmer; creator of the @ sign in e-mail addresses; sent the first e-mail message over a network link (simulated) between two computers at BBN in 1972; member of the MsgGroup; wrote early file-transfer protocol called CPYNET and mail programs called SNDMSG and READMAIL.

Vezza, Al; director of Project MAC at MIT; he and Bob Kahn, at Larry Roberts request, organized the first public demonstration of the ARPA Network at the ICCC conference in Washington, D.C., in 1972; member of the MsGroup; early developer of computer games.

Vittal, John; programmer; e-mail developer; wrote MSG mail program (most popular e-mail software on the network in 1975); inventor of the ANSWER command; influential member of the MsgGroup.

Wingfield, Mike; built the first host-to-IMP interface while a graduate student at UCLA in 1969.

Bolt Beranek and Newman; engineering consulting firm in Cambridge, Massachusetts, founded in 1948 by Richard Bolt, an electrical engineer, and Leo Baranek, architect and physicist (who later enlisted Robert Newman, architect); widely known for acoustical engineering; the firm branched into computers after hiring J.C.R. Licklider in 1957; was awarded the contract from ARPA in 1968 to build the Interface Message Processors and construct and run the ARPA Network.


Barry Wessler, Bob Taylor, and Larry Roberts,
reunited in 1994 at the 25th Anniversary of ARPANET.

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